Someone asks, is prayer still valid if a person performs ghusl (ritual bath) instead of making ablution in case he was in a state of major ritual impurity? Does this ruling include the Friday ghusl? Do I have to perform ablution if I touch my penis during the ritual bath?
All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, the Beneficent, the Merciful, and the Master of the Day of Judgment.
If a person is in a state of major ritual impurity, he has to perform ghusl and there is no need to make wudu’ (ablution) later to offer prayer. Almighty Allah says:
…if you are in a state of janabah, then purify yourselves… (Al-Ma’idah 5:6)
According to the previous verse, there is no a clear evidence that the Muslim has to make ablution along with ghusl from major ritual impurity. Also, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said to Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her): “It is enough for you to throw three handfuls of water on your head and then pour water over yourself, and you shall be purified.” (Muslim)
`A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: “The Messenger of Allah would not perform ablution after the bath to cleanse himself from sexual impurity.” (Ibn Majah)
Imam Abu Bakr ‘Al-`Arabi said, “Scholars have agreed that ablution is included in the ritual bath and that the intention of the major ritual impurity abolishes the intention of the minor one.”
Ibn `Uthaimin (may Allah have mercy upon him) said: “If the ritual bath is due to janabah, it will be sufficient for a person to make ablution due to the previous verse. In case a person gets down a pond, river, or something like that with the intention to clear himself from the major ritual impurity along with rinsing his mouth and sniffing water, then it is sufficient for the major and minor impurity, as the Almighty Allah has only prescribed one to purify himself.
Regarding the nafl ghusl (optional bath) like that performed on Friday or ghusl for just cleaning, then it is not sufficient as it does not include the intention of clearing oneself from the major ritual impurity. So, if someone does not intend to make ablution, he has to repeat it after finishing his bath.
In case a person nullifies his ablution during the ritual bath, he must perform the ablution after finishing the ritual bath.
Ibn `Uthaimin said, “He does not have to make ablution after the ritual bath unless he nullifies his ablution whether before or after the ritual bath. So, he must perform ablution before offering the prayer. If he does not nullify it, his ritual bath is sufficient for him whether he performs ablution before the ritual bath or not.
Translated and adapted from Islamweb.net.